X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis or XRPD analysis) is uniquely used for determination of crystallinity of a compound:
- I.D. of crystalline material (used for regulatory purposes or during development.)
- I.D. of different polymorphic forms (“fingerprints” ).
- Distinguishing between amorphous and crystalline material
- Quantification of the percent crystallinity of a sample
- Quantification and qualification of polymorphic forms present in the sample
- Quantification and qualification analysis of crystalline chemical compounds present in the samples
- Analysis of crystalline structure of material
- Verification of co-crystal and crystalline salt formation
- Identify a solid-form of drug substance in a dosage form.
- Study buffer/solvent induced solid-form transition during dissolution and in suspensions
- Study stability of polymorphs in slurries.
- Conduct polymorph, salt, co-crystal screenings.
- Study phase diagrams for co-crystal scaling up of crystallisation process.
Knowledge about crystallinity is highly relevant, as a crystalline form is usually preferred in development: In contrast to amorphous material, a crystal has well-defined properties (melting point, solubility and IDR) – parameters that should be known in order to control your final product. The result from an XRD analysis is a diffractogram showing the intensity as a function of the diffraction angles. Positive ID of a material using XRD analysis is based on accordance between the diffraction angles of a reference material and the sample in question.
For Material Experts:
Instrument and measuring principle
XRD analysis is based on constructive interference of monochromatic X-rays and a crystalline sample: The X-rays are generated by a cathode ray tube, filtered to produce monochromatic radiation, collimated to concentrate, and directed toward the sample. The interaction of the incident rays with the sample produces constructive interference (and a diffracted ray) when conditions satisfy Bragg’s Law (nλ=2d sin θ). This law relates the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation to the diffraction angle and the lattice spacing in a crystalline sample.
The characteristic x-ray diffraction pattern generated in a typical XRD analysis provides a unique “fingerprint” of the crystals present in the sample. When properly interpreted, by comparison with standard reference patterns and measurements, this fingerprint allows identification of the crystalline form.
|Instrument||PANalytical X’Pert³ Powder and Multipurpose X-ray Diffractometer Empyrean|
|USP/Ph. Eur.||Ph. Eur 2.9.33|
|Operating range||2-60 °2Theta (if required up to 150 °2Theta)|
|Temperature||R.T. (temperature chamber available)|
|Humidity||Ambient (humidity chamber available)|
|Sample amount||App. 10 mg-200 mg|
Consult our Experts
Dr. Wenbo Wang
Dr. Anna Shevchenko
Brittain HG (2001) X-ray diffraction III: pharmaceutical applications. Spectroscopy (7):14-8.
Brittain HG (2003) X-ray diffraction of pharmaceutical materials. Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients and Related Methodology 30:271-319.
Ivanisevic I, McClurg RB, Schields PJ (2010) Uses of X‐ray powder diffraction in the pharmaceutical industry. In Pharmaceutical sciences encyclopedia: drug discovery, development, and manufacturing 15:1-42.
Thakral S, Terban MW, Thakral NK, Suryanarayanan R (2016) Recent advances in the characterisation of amorphous pharmaceuticals by X-ray diffractometry. Adv Drug Reviews 100:183-93.
Thakral NK, Zanon RL, Kelly RC, Thakral S (2018) Applications of powder X-ray diffraction in small molecule pharmaceuticals: Achievements and aspirations. J Pharm Sci 107(12):2969-82.
Phadnis NV, Cavatur RK, Suryanarayanan R. Identification of drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms by X-ray powder diffractometry. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. 1997 Apr 1;15(7):929-43.
Phadnis NV, Suryanarayanan R (1997) Polymorphism in anhydrous theophylline—implications on the dissolution rate of theophylline tablets. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 1997 Nov 1;86(11):1256-63.
Surana R, Suryanarayanan R (2000) Quantitation of crystallinity in substantially amorphous pharmaceuticals and study of crystallisation kinetics by X-ray powder diffractometry. Powder Diffr 15(1):2-6.